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Ap Biology Chapter 13 Reading Assignment Answers

AP Biology Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts.
A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome.
The X-shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis. (plural, chiasmata)
A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells. (1)
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis.
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
The generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism.
A specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located. (plural, loci)
A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
The first division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
The second division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
A chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromosome.
One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual.
A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents.
The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
A paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids. Tetrads form during prophase I of meiosis.
Differences between members of the same species.
The diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conception; a fertilized egg.

Chapter 13 Guided Reading Assignment 1. Explain Griffith’s experiment and the concept of transformation in detail.2. What did Avery, MacLeod and McCarty contribute to this line of investigation?3. What is a bacteriophage?4.Label the diagram below and explain the Hershey Chase experiment.5. How did Chargraff’s work contribute to understanding the structure of DNA?6. Why was Rosalind’s Franklin’s work essential to the understanding of the structure of DNA?Griffith had two strains of the bacterium, a pathogenic one and a nonpathogenic strain. He was surprised to Fnd that when he killed the pathogenic bacteria with heat and then mixed the cell remains with living bacteria of the nonpathogenic strain, some of the living cells became pathogenic. Avery puriFed various types of molecules from the heat-killed bacteria, then tried to transform nonpathogenic bacteria with each type. Only DNA worked. ±inally, in 1944, Avery and his colleagues McCarty and MacLeod announced that the transforming interest was DNA.A bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria, and only infects a speciFc host cell.He reported that DNA composition varies from one species to another, which accounts for the genetic variation found between diferent species. He also found a peculiar regularity in the ratios of nucleotide bases within a single species. The DNA composition changes from species to species, but it is consistent within the same species.

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